The emergence of globalization
|Topics:||Globalization, Social Issues, Social Studies|
Globalization can be defined as the process of international incorporation (Murray, 2006). For instance, the Silk Road, which connects Asia, Europe and Africa, is an excellent example of the transformative power of global exchange (Brook, 2008). Language, arts, religion and philosophy among other aspects of culture extended and mixed as states swapped ideas and products. Furthermore, the global migration of individuals, goods and thoughts extended considerably in the 15th and 16th centuries. This article will discuss how the United States has contributed to the emergence of globalization.
As defined above, globalization is an elimination of trade barriers, communication and cultural exchange limitations (Murray, 2006). The emergence of globalization was introduced to promote inherent wealth among all countries in the world. The United States has notably been identified as the leader in globalization after the World War II. In 1993, they introduced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which was a movement aimed at eliminating trade boundaries and promoting globalization (Brook, 2008). In the 19th century, most countries started investing in new forms of transport and communication services. Additionally, there were other transport systems such as road and air transport and communication forms such as the introduction of the internet and the cell phone (Murray, 2006).
With the invention of these advanced forms of transport and communication, billions of people were connected globally. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund acknowledged four fundamental aspects of globalization (Brook, 2008). These aspects include trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and dissemination of knowledge. Early in the 21st century, the developing states augmented their global trade share. However, there was a vast disparity among the major regions in the world in regard to trade and other transactions. Also, the movement of people to different places in the world had a significant impact on the globalization factor. In most cases, it was noted that individuals migrated from their countries to other regions where the economy was advanced. In addition, dissemination of information is also an integral aspect in globalization (Brook, 2008). Technological innovations formed significant benefits to the least developing countries in the world. Lastly, the aspect of investment and capital movements still remains significant in globalization.
Most of the corporations which are located in the United States have moved their services to other countries where it is cheap to perform their business. Additionally, other technical jobs and services are also moving to other locations. This is referred to as off shoring and outsourcing. Therefore, this has enabled most Americans to become designers and innovators among other careers, which employ new concepts and technologies. Research clearly asserts that, the education standards in the United States are drastically regressing. Subjects such as intelligent design are being taught in many institutions. Even with the higher education provided in the country, most of the technical subjects are being studied in other countries (Murray, 2006).
The former president of the United States; George W. Bush claimed that they should not be against globalization. However, it is observed that the country is significantly falling behind when competing economically in the global market (Brook, 2008). As a matter of fact, something should be done before more Americans leave the country for better opportunities in other countries. The economy of the United States is temporarily stagnant as a result of these effects.
In the globalization aspect, there are both positive and negative impacts. Most of the benefits of globalization correspond to the less developed countries since; through globalization the less developed countries are able to improve their economic conditions. In the United States, the newly established markets all over the world create new opportunities for economic growth. The United States is continually surrendering part of their national sovereignty so that the benefits of globalization offset the costs.
For any individual to understand the impact of globalization in the United States, they should closely analyze the historical role of the nation. To some extent, globalization signifies negation of benefits afforded by nation-state politics (Murray, 2006). In the modern world, the concept of nation-state can be described as a superior political entity which is liable for governing locations that are inhabited by populations with a sense of mutual identity. This concept simply combines the idea of a nation with the political construct of a state. In the 21st century, this concept has become a dominant system of political organization world widely. This concept and the nationalism forces represent the contending prototypes (Murray, 2006).
Nowadays, international interaction is constrained by the authority of the international community which is assisted by the political and economic forces of globalization. Most individuals view globalization as a barrier to the benefits of nationalism which include space exploration and technological innovation among other activities pursued in an effort to achieve proportional superiority (Bhagwati, 2004). Nevertheless globalization benefits are coherent, both world widely and their impact on the American domestic policy. In the United States and other poor states, economic benefits from the increased prosperity have a significant impact on the global scale.
Moreover, there are other significant benefits to globalization in the wealthier countries, like the United States (Brook, 2008). In the past, the wealthy nations benefited from globalization because, new markets were established for goods and products. Nowadays, the U.S. economy is the biggest globally. The United States has been relying on foreign lending, hence; its account deficit has vastly widened. Statistics prove that the country’s liabilities overseas have steeply risen to approximately 25% of the Gross Domestic Product. Nearly half of the publicly held national debt is in foreign hands. The treasury holdings of the country amount to over $1.1trillion. In short, even in countries where globalization effects are high, the realities of modern globalization leave the demerits to outweigh the benefits (Murray, 2006).
In 1945, there was a conference that was held by the three allied war leaders. The conference that was known as the Yalta Conference enabled the leaders to agree in the foundation of the United Nations after the 2nd World War. This union is headquartered in New York. The main aim of the United Nations was to focus on international law, disaster relief, dispute resolution, recognition of new states and human rights aspects. During the cold war era, the Soviet Union and the United States divided the world into a bipolar system (Brubaker, 1992).
The United States practiced a quasi-globalization with the states that it was able to influence. This vastly promoted cultural exchanges and trade among other factors. These factors essentially enabled these states to remain the sphere of the United States (Brubaker, 1992). The United States also promoted free trade among its allies during the cold war era. This continued even after the collapsing of the Soviet Union in 1991. In this case, free trade referred to lack of trade barriers between nations. Trade barriers were recognized as tariffs that were imposed to traders. After the 16th amendment was endorsed, these tariffs became less necessary in the country (Bhagwati, 2004).
In the 1930s, the United States made an attempt to protect the manufacturers who were trying to survive from the Great Depression. Therefore, the Congress approved the shocking Smoot-Hawley Tariff. In 1934, the Congress approved the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act. This act was prepared to slacken trade agreements and encourage other countries also to do the same. According to current statistics, the United States has incorporated 17 nations in the free trade agreements. Later on, they had a conference that involved the World War II allies in 1944. This conference formed the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs. Also, this agreement was aimed at enhancing globalization (Brubaker, 1992).
This agreement also led to several multilateral trade meetings. By the end of 1993, 117 nations had accepted the proposal to create the World Trade Organization. This is one of the most successful agreements that enhanced globalization globally. Furthermore, they also focused on communication aspects (Brubaker, 1992). In relation to communication, the United States established a radio network during the cold war era which was known as Voice of America (VOA). Fortunately, this radio network is functional till today. The United States has also tried to sponsor other cultural exchange programs.
The current president Barrack Obama recently unveiled the International plan for cyberspace. This strategy is aimed at ensuring free global internet, therefore; connecting more individuals (Bhagwati, 2004). Unfortunately, there are several difficulties that exist with the dominion of globalization.
In conclusion, most of the opponents of America claim that the country has destroyed most of its country’s jobs as a result of globalization. It is clear that the United States has enhanced much of its foreign policy with the globalization strategy. For instance, if globalization goes out-of-control, then it can be dangerous to the country. The United States stands to achieve enormously from globalization, however; they should understand the social, economic and cultural implications (Bhagwati, 2004).
- Bhagwati, J. (2004). In defense of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Brook, T. (2008). Vermeer’s hat: The seventeenth-century and the dawn of the global world. New York: Bloomsbury Publishers.
- Brubaker, R. (1992). Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Murray, W. (2006). Geographies of globalization. New York: Routledge Press.