Suffrage ought to be a fruit of citizenship

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Suffrage ought to be a fruit of citizenship

The confederate state also required restoration; this was in the minds of the republicans (Sawrey, 156). In 1866, the Civil Rights Act was passed to redeem slaves from probable infringement of their rights.  The United States’ fourteenth amendment to the constitution was a proposal that emanated from the republicans (Johnson, 3).  The Civil Rights Act defined citizenship and states were barred from violating the immunities or privileges of United States citizens (Foner, 863). Moreover, the act was focused on ensuring all citizens realize equal protection of the laws and due process. Under the Reconstruction Act of 1867, all men regardless of their skin color were eligible to participate in due process under the fourteenth amendment (Douglass, 2).  In that same year, the tenure of office act, appointees had the right to keep their offices until when the senate appointed a successor, black men had the right to vote, the required number necessary for ratification was reached and the fourteenth amendment was subsequently ratified (Foner, 864). The republicans were determined to see to it that the fourteenth amendment took effect; on the other hand, the democrats were hell bent to see that it did not go through. However, after the republicans in the elections that followed confirmed victory, the democrats also accepted reconstruction without protest in their subsequent campaigns. In 1868, states were forbidden from discrimination on the premise of race (Sawrey, 157).

Southerners protection of fundamental rights and search for stability

The southerners did not agree with legitimacy of the policies brought forth by the republicans and instead saw mischief in the taxes they paid to fund programs that benefitted blacks (Johnson, 5). These white southerners responded through violence and intimidation (Sawrey, 157). Consequently, these led to denial of ballots casted at the affected regions in the south, president grant sought to suppress the spate of events to realize state authorities’ stability.  In1875, through the civil rights act, racial discrimination was declared illegal in public spheres (Foner, 865). Afterwards, it was an accepted principle in racial integration that to realize citizenship, ought to exercise respect and acceptance.  However, in 1892, after victory by the democrats, the quest for equality between citizens in response to restrictive decisions of the supreme court, weakness of federal institutions, intimidation and racism was defeated leading to establishment of racial segregation mandated by the state in the south.

The relationship between the union and the southern states

Mostly, his involved rallying calls by Lincoln on loyalty and demands increased for the state to realize loyalty (Douglass, 4). No participation of the African American citizens was required. Ideally, state had to take oath of future loyalty coupled with individual pardons_ the position of congress over reconstruction was final and some intimated the death of states particularly what came to be referred to as “state suicide”( Sawrey, 161). The anticipated results of the war were a free people, however, President Johnson watched as states imposed stringent restrictions on the black population.

Reconstruction and Supreme Court

Largely, the court conformed to attitudes of the then reconstruction agenda. The Supreme Court was opposed to the president’s use of the military to try civilians (Johnson, 5). There was no unanimous response to the issue at hand; the republicans would not tolerate judicial usurpation just as the democrats raised the issue of constitutionality (Foner, 866).  Restoration of normal relations was the outcome with the Supreme Court deciding on protection of rights related to federalism (Sawrey, 161). The stance taken by the courts encouraged afflicted individuals to challenge decisions of public bodies in courts thus supplementing deficiencies that were in plenty within the political system.

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  1. Douglass, Frederick. The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass: The Civil War, 1861-1865. Vol. 3. International Publishers, 1950.
  2. Foner, Eric. “Rights and the Constitution in Black Life during the Civil War and Reconstruction.” The Journal of American History 74.3 (1987): 863-883.
  3. Sawrey, Robert D. “” Give Him the Hot End of the Poker”: Ohio Republicans Reject Johnson’s Leadership of Reconstruction.” Civil War History 33.2 (1987): 155-172.
  4. Johnson, Andrew Veto of the Civil Rights Bill– March 27, 1866
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