Human Trafficking – Annotated Bibliography
|Topics:||Human Trafficking, Discrimination, Human Rights, ⏳ Social Issues, 🔪 Crime|
Table of Contents
Griffin, Nichole. & Wilson, Levon E. The United States: Land of Opportunity or Land of Deception?
Griffin & Wilson (2012) have carried out their research on the topic of human trafficking, in which they have expressed their grave concern in the horrible increase in the illegal trade and transfer of humans in the USA (O’Neill 44). The researchers have declared human trafficking as the explicit violation of human rights, as shifting someone at any place against his free consent with the aim of selling him or forcing him to lead his life as per the choice and on the directions of trafficker, abductor or illegal buyer serves as the open manifestation of his humiliation and degradation (Griffin & Wilson 2). Human trafficking is practiced for the sake of abducting and selling the individuals to deploy them at the forced agricultural, industrial or domestic labor, or for obtaining his services for committing crimes, sex labor, beggary or other humiliating activity (Walters & Davis 4). Consequently, human traffickers tend to provide the sex industry and crime world the man power by trafficking the innocent children, women and adults against finances, privileges and benefits (Griffin & Wilson 4).
Human trafficking is not confined to one specific area or geographical zone of the world; on the contrary, this social evil prevails in all societies of the world without discrimination (US State Department 5). Human traffickers turn the free persons to be forced laborers, prisoners, slaves and sex slaves by confining them to the area of their choice. Therefore, human trafficking has been declared as the modern era slave trade prevailing in society (Thomas 22). Consequently, Griffin & Wilson have emphasized on the immediate need for the strict implementation of human trafficking control laws on one side, and employing of dedicated efforts from all members of society on the other; so that the helpless victims of human trafficking can be set free from the cruelty of traffickers and human traders (5-6).
Amanda, Walker-Rodriguez., Hill, J.D., & Rodney, J.D. Human Sex Trafficking
Amanda et al. (2011) have also conducted their study on human trafficking by paying special concentration upon the illegal human trade committed for the sexual purposes. In light of their research on this serious social problem, Amanda et al ascertain that the number of sex trafficking victims can be estimated in millions (1). The also maintain that mostly women and children become the victim of sex trafficking due to their demands by the brothel houses and adulterers (Barnitz 11). Hence, helpless and stranded women and children are brutally tortured and battered by forcing them to get indulged into the involuntary prostitution in wake of their sex trafficking (Amanda et al., 2). The traffickers and rackets of prostitution take sex slavery of women and children as a profitable business for them. Hence, they trap the street children, single mothers and homeless women, and sell them to the brothel houses and pornographic websites with the aim of obtaining financial gains out of such a heinous crime against humanity (Amanda et al 4).
Hart, Joyce. Human Trafficking
Hart has embarked upon his venture on the subject of human trafficking by writing a book with the same title, in which he has attempted to provide the readers with a detailed overview of the causes, circumstances and impact of human trafficking on the victims on one side, and the society at large on the other. While elaborating the causes of human trafficking, Hart ascertains that the traffickers commit this condemnable crime against humanity for obtaining money from the brothel houses and the criminal networks involved into bonded labor and offences of various kinds in society (15-6). The victims’ being unattended, unprotected and unsheltered serves as the major reason behind their becoming an easy prey to the criminal intentions of the traffickers (Barnitz 26). The deprived and downtrodden women and children living in streets have higher tendencies of getting abducted and trafficked (Hart 17). Similarly, the children leaving their houses for one reason or the other also become victim of trafficking due to their being simple and having insufficient mental and physical capacities necessary for comprehending with the condemnable designs of the traffickers (Clawson et al. 17).
The author has explained the astounding impacts of trafficking on the victims, where not only this that physical health and fitness of the trafficked individuals experience a devastating affect; but also their mental, emotional and psychological situation turns to be extremely shocking and shattering (Hart 30-1). The victims are severely tortured and maltreated through infliction of physical, mental and sexual violence on them, so that they can be turned extremely frightened, and hence would not think or plan of escaping from the control of the traffickers (Barnitz 15). Moreover, they are also kept hungry, thirsty and naked in order to keep them physically weak and exhausted (Hart 31).
Farrell, Courtney. Human Trafficking
Farrell (2011) has got his work published on human trafficking, in which he has strongly condemned the illegal, ruthless and tyrant act of trafficking by declaring it as the contemporary era slavery (7-8). The author has described various forms of slavery prevailing in different parts of the globe (18-9). Farrell is of the view that the humans have invented different ways and methods to enslave their fellow beings in one way or the other; the companies and employers also look involved into this crime, where they blackmail the employees against the loans they offered them in past (Farrell 20). The condemnable tradition is particular popular in South Asian region, where the domestic, official, industrial and agricultural employees are pushed towards bonded labor and even sexual exploitation because of their not being in position of returning the loans they borrowed from their employers in past against heavy interest rates (21-2). The author also looks lamenting over the victimization of innocent children by the human traffickers, where every type of shameful atrocities is inflicted upon them during their forced confinement (Bales 16). The author further maintains that the children of these bonded employees have to abandon their education and start labor in order to add their contributions in returning the loans borrowed by their parents (23). As a result, a large part of their life is spent in working as bonded slaves in factories and mills in many parts of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan (24-5).
Walters, Jim., & Davis, Patricia H. Human Trafficking, Sex Tourism, and Child Exploitation on the Southern Border
Walters & Davis have conducted their study on human trafficking by including the topics of sex tourism and child exploitation being witnessed on the southern borders of the United States. The researchers argue that the history of human slavery is as old as human civilization itself (2); therefore the relics and records of ancient Greek and Roman cultural history narrate the existence of slavery and slave trade in the two ancient city-states (Graves 13). Moreover, the children belonging to vanquished and defeated city-states and countries were also sold as slaves in the markets during the medieval times in different parts of Asia and Africa for the local as well as foreigner buyers to take them to Europe, America and other parts of the world (Ember & Ember 539). In the same way, child labor and trade used to be a popular phenomenon during the medieval times. The similar custom still prevailed in America and Europe, and the children could be found working as laborers and servants in fields and homes during 16th to 20th centuries in many parts of the USA and Europe. The researchers further ascertain that despite the fact that Congress enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in October 2000; nevertheless, no significant decrease in child trafficking could have been witnessed in the country (Walters & Davis 6-7). Although ILO has also explicitly condemned child labor and trafficking in all areas of the globe, the states do not look to be triumphant in challenging the condemnable crime from their respective political and geographical jurisdictions. As a result, the crime has destroyed the lives of millions of the trafficked women and children, as well as their families, which look leading between the state of life and death in wake of the disappearance of their family members at the hands of the cruel and merciless traffickers (Estes& Weiner 56-7).
- Amanda, Walker-Rodriguez., Hill, J.D., & Rodney, J.D. Human Sex Trafficking. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Research Library, 80, 3; Mar 2011 1-9.
- Bales, Kevin. 1999. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Barnitz, Laura A. 2000. “Commercial Sexual Exploitation of children: Youth involved in Prostitution, Pornography, and sex trafficking.” Y.P. International, pp. 4-47.
- Clawson, Heather J., Layne, Mary., & Small, Kevonne. 2006. “Estimating Human Trafficking into the United States: Development of a Methodology.” Final Report, CALIBER, December, pp. 5-66.
- Estes, Richard J. & Weiner, Neil Alan. 2002. “The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U. S., Canada and Mexico.” Center for the Study of Youth Policy, University of Pennsylvania, pp. 3-251.
- Farrell, Courtney. Human Trafficking. New York: ABDO, 2011. Print.
- Griffin, Nichole. & Wilson, Levon E. The United States: Land of Opportunity or Land of Deception? Southern Journal of Business and Ethics, Volume 4, 2012 1-11.
- Hart, Joyce. Human Trafficking. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. Print.
- O’Neill, Maria. 2012. “Trafficking in Human Beings: An ongoing problem for the EU’s law enforcement community.” .SIAK Journal, pp. 43-54.
- Thomas, Hugh. 1997. The Slave Trade. New York: Simon and Schuster.
- Walters, Jim., & Davis, Patricia H. Human Trafficking, Sex Tourism, and Child Exploitation on the Southern Border. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy on Children at Risk. Volume 2, Issue 1, Article 6, 2011 3-16.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. “Human Trafficking Into and Within the United States: A Review Of The Literature.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Pp. 1-54.
- US Department of State. 2010. “Trafficking in Persons Report.” 10th Edition., June, pp. 1-373.