Evidence-based plan for evaluating outcomes
Table of Contents
This study will look at outcome evaluation in Evidence-Based Plan using the PICOT question: In women with family history of breast cancer (P), does education on the self-breast exam and yearly mammograms (I), compared with not education (C) will reduce mortality associated with breast cancer (O). The process of outcome evaluation involves interpretation of results obtained using evidence based-practice intervention (I).
Defining Outcome and Measuring Processes
The outcome is derived from interventions made in the PICOT process. According to Fuller, Lee, and Elmore (2015), identification could be achieved by self-detection, which is a subjective measure, or through observation in mammograms, which is an objective measure.
Therefore, in this study, the outcome to be evaluated will include the tumor detection rate as well as characteristics of the tumor in women who have had a self-breast exam and yearly mammograms as intervention respectively. If the average rate of detection increases from the baseline rate, then it is obvious that the evidence-based detection intervention program is effective (Mumba-Kaunda, 2016).
However, it is important to differentiate between processes and outcome. In this study, outcome processes include self-breast exam and yearly mammograms. The outcome includes the rate of breast tumor detection and characteristics of breast tumor detection. Also, in EBP, it is important to include other metrics such as infection rates, complication rates, and costs. For instance, in evaluating the rate of tumor detection in women with a family cancer history, self-exam and mammogram costs should be taken into consideration (Tian et al., 2016).
Outcome Evaluation Phases
These phases include steps that are meant to define the outcome targets, coming up with measurement methods, identifying clinical evidence that support the practice and measuring the impacts that will be experienced when the new intervention will be implemented (Melnyk et al., 2017).
This is where the clinical problem will be identified, the outcome to be measured will also be identified and decided, and the data sources to be used for the outcomes will be selected and identified. In this case, the clinical problem identified is the high rate of mortality rate associated with breast cancer among women with family history of breast cancer. The outcome to be measured is early detection of breast cancer tumor and the characteristics if those tumors.
In this phase, the selected literature will be reviewed and critically appraised to come up with the best evidence that will be used to guide the practice. This phase will also involve making the implementation decisions. This decision could include coming up with plans on how practice change will be implemented (Melnyk et al., 2017). Various literature on breasts cancer for women with family history of breast cancer will be analyzed and critically appraised.
This phase will involve educating the nurses on the new practice and how to implement the practice change. This phase will also be the phase which implementation of the practice change will be implemented after educating the nurses on the new practice. In this case, the nurses will be educated on either self-examination or the mammograms and the one decided on should be implemented in this phase.
This is the last phase in evaluating and managing evidence-based outcomes. It involves collecting and analyzing outcome data then disseminating the findings to women with family history of breast cancer and nurses. It also involves identification of additional opportunities in early detection of breasts cancer.
- Fuller, M. S., Lee, C. I., & Elmore, J. G. (2015). Breast cancer screening: An evidence-based update. The Medical Clinics of North America, 99(3), 451–468. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.002
- Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher-Ford, L., Fineout-Overholt, E., & Sigma Theta Tau International. (2017). Implementing the evidence-based practice (EBP) competencies in healthcare: A practical guide to improving quality, safety, and outcomes.
- Mumba-Kaunda, G. (2016). Effect of using culturally sensitive education in increasing mammogram use and breast cancer awareness: African female immigrants. Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports. Paper 93. Retrieved December 31, 2017, from http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1093&context=ebpr
- Tian, L., Lin, L., Li, H. L, Chen, K. J, Zhang, X. J, Qian, S. J, & Hu, Y. (2016). Prevalence and associated factors of cancer-related fatigue among cancer patients in eastern China. Oncologist, 21, 1–6.
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