Domestic violence against women

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Method

Participants

For this research study, the researchers divided the sample size into 30 strata for obtaining estimates at the national, urban, or rural levels into five regions and 12 respectively. Study sample population comprised of 23,000 households allocated equally among the 12 areas. The survey’s distribution was 75% and 25% respectively (Zimmerman et al., 2016). Accordingly, cities with over 10,000 residents were classified as urban strata whereas those with fewer than 10,000 residents were classified as rural strata. In this study, the urban strata population was 17,344 with 5,656 making up the rural strata. Additionally, the study relied on cluster sampling procedures (Abramsky et al., 2014). As a result, the urban strata were made up of 49 households and 35 households for the rural study population. To attain the required cluster size, researchers visited 542 clusters comprising of 377 urban and 165 rural groups.

Materials

Researchers obtained the participant’s consent regarding the benefits, risks, and procedures for participation (Downes, Kelly & Westmarland, 2014). Also, they provided a rationale for the study, counseling services options, voluntary involvement in the research and contact details. The study’s purpose was stated explicitly in the consent form. A fieldwork team of 190 was trained for two weeks as interviewers, data entry clerks, supervisors, and fieldwork editors. Training sought to equip the team with skills required to fulfill their responsibilities. Subsequently, fieldwork consisted of a three-day pilot study and 15 units of three editors, one supervisor, and eight interviewers (Skinner, Hester, & Malos, (eds.). (2013). Collected data were analyzed using the Census and Survey Processing (CiSPro) program on household and women data sets. This application helped compute sample weights later applied to the entire dataset for both individual and household levels (Kalokhe et al., 2017).

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Design and Procedure

A survey questionnaire was designed to meet the research requirements of the World Health Organization (WHO) (World Health Organization, 2013). Accordingly, there were two questionnaires: a woman questionnaire and household questionnaire. Cards with a smiling or crying face were issued to participants for indicating whether they have been victims of domestic violence. The study targeted women between the ages of 15 and 59 years (Kelmendi, 2015). Moreover, the study involved both marital and non-marital relationships. However, in households with multiple women, only one woman was selected as an interviewee. Before commencing the study, both questionnaires were subjected to pretests to determine the relevance, flow, suitability, wording, and accuracy of questions to this survey (Messing, Campbell, & Wilson, 2015).

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  1. Abramsky, T., Devries, K., Kiss, L., Nakuti, J., Kyegombe, N., Starmann, E. … & Michau, L. (2014). Findings from the SASA! Study: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Medicine, 12(1), 122.
  2. Downes, J., Kelly, L., & Westmarland, N. (2014). Ethics in violence and abuse research-a positive empowerment approach. Sociological Research Online, 19(1), 2.
  3. Kalokhe, A., del Rio, C., Dunkle, K., Stephenson, R., Metheny, N., Paranjape, A., & Sahay, S. (2017). Domestic Violence against Women in India: a systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies. Global Public Health, 12(4), 498-513.
  4. Kelmendi, K. (2015). Domestic violence against women in Kosovo: a qualitative study of women’s experiences. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(4), 680-702.
  5. Messing, J. T., Campbell, J., & Wilson, J. S. (2015). Research designs in the real world: testing the effectiveness of an IPV intervention. National Institute of Justice Journal, 275, 48-56.
  6. Skinner, T., Hester, M., & Malos, E. (Eds.). (2013). Researching gender violence. New York, NY: Routledge.
  7. World Health Organization. (2013). Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  8. Zimmerman, C., Michau, L., Hossain, M., Kiss, L., Borland, R., & Watts, C. (2016). Rigged or rigorous? Partnerships for research and evaluation of complex social problems: lessons from the field of violence against women and girls. Journal of Public Health Policy, 37(1), 95-109.
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